Nola Pender developed the Health Promotion model, often abbreviated HPM, after seeing professionals intervening only after patients developed acute or chronic health problems. She became convinced that patients' quality of life could be improved by the prevention of problems before this occurred, and health care dollars could be saved by the promotion of healthy lifestyles. After researching current models and discovering that most focused on negative motivation, she developed a model that focused on positive motivation. The first version of the model appeared in literature in 1982. It was revised in 1996 based on changing theoretical perspectives and empirical findings.
Application & Benefits
The purpose of the model is to assist nurses in understanding the major determinants of health behaviors as a basis for behavioral counseling to promote healthy lifestyles. Pender's theory encourages scholars to look at variables that have been shown to impact health behavior. It uses research findings from nursing, psychology, and public health to inform a model of health behavior. The model can be used as a foundation to structure nursing protocols and interventions. In practice, nurses should focus on understanding and addressing the variables most predictive of given health behaviors.
Materials for the Health Promotion Model may be downloaded here. All materials are subject to the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License.